February 2018: CATW 03.4

It's 2018, so the 10th anniversary of catw 0.3 the first fully-fledge, working mod version of Classical Age: Total war. So for this special occasion, i worked for two months on a complete overhaul of the mod. More on this on this page

Download catw03.4

Nov. 2017: catw 08 Mithridates

The Year is 88 BC. The ancient world is a troubled place. The Romans are definitely consolidating an Empire, stretching an ageing republic to the limit. But Social War just ended with the defeat of the Italian allies by the Senate and Sulla became master of Rome, marching into the city with his army. A sacrilege never committed before. The latter would soon take his first command in the East, against a menacing Mithridates; The first Roman Civil War starts with a democratic uprising led by Gaius Marius (father of the famous reforms). At the same time, from the balkans a huge army composed of the Dardani, Scordisci, and the Maedi attack the Roman province of Macedonia. To give the scope and ferocity of the first Mithridatic war, King Mithridates VI of Pontus invades Greece, defeating the Roman forces four times in succession, conquering Bithynia, Phrygia, Mysia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Ionia and Cappadocia, all but dismantling the Roman province of Asia, rounding up and murdering Latins everywhere in a single day. He shows the most hatred stance against the Romans since Hannibal Barca.


New Mod, new timeframe, new Factions. CATW 08 is the most ambitious modification so far of the old catw 1.0 core. It share only 50% factions with the latter. Exit the Samnites, Iberians, Boii or Arverni, Macedonians, and many more. Only a fraction of the old world of 300 BC is still in place. Here is a comprehensive overview of those new factions, which occupied the 200-region strong map a better way than previous mods, due east. There is an Indian culture, an Arabian culture (Saba), an African kingdom (Kush), Persian culture (Media), Judaeans, even proto-mongols (Yuezhe) and Tocharians (Saka) and the Indo-Greeks. Therefore but its diversity and scope, this is the most ambitious version of CATW so far.


The Sabean Kingdom was of course made famous by the Bible, through the fabled relation between the wealthy queen of this southern Arabian empire (called Sheba) and David, King of Israel. At the origin the kingdom comprised only two cities, Sana'a and Ma'rib, and the capital was later placed in Sirwah. The ancient Semitic civilization of Saba in Southern Arabia remains controversial. It is generally accepted now that it was located in southern Arabia, areas comprising new the Yemen and Arabian peninsula and was described as "the oldest and most important of the South Arabian kingdoms". In 275 BCE (from around 900 to 1200 BCE), long civil wars between Yemenite dynasties claiming kingship made it fall, replaced by the Kingdom of Himyar, the latter rising to fame between 110 BCE and 525 CE.

The Sabaean kingdom legendary wealth came from the control of trade between the Indian ocean and the red sea, therefore, access to the Mediterranean, notably trade of frankincense and myrrh, incenses which were burned at altars. The Sabaean language and similar languages used in those rival kingdoms were, like Arabic, Semitic languages. The gold the caravans carried home with them made these also very wealthy. Rival kingdoms rose up in the area to challenge Saba, but the trade continued profitably for South until well into the Christian era, and the Sabaean civilization was the most reputed (among four kingdoms), demonstrated by an achievement such as the ma'rib dam, and the most durable as it had the largest standing army. It was able to develop a vigorous expansionist policy and conquered Qataban. It even send troops to conquer the east african coast (now Yemen). Little is known in detail of this army, but by 24BC, the Roman governor of Egypt and his legions, Marcus Aelius Gallus, was soundly defeated. The Sabaean army and its commander's confidence was also praised by the Qur'an.

Qataban was an ancient Yemeni kingdom, which heartland was located in the Baihan valley. The capital of Qataban was named Timna and was located on the trade route which passed through the other kingdoms of Hadramaut, Sheba and Ma'in. Chief deity was Amm, or "Uncle" while the Qatabans called themselves the "children of Amm". It became the most prominent Yemeni kingdom around 500 BCE, when its ruler held the title of the South Arabian hegemon, the Mukarrib, "priest-kings" or "federators" of Southern Arabia. About (800-400 bc) local political authority resided with the mlk, king of his own ethnic tribe but appointed to lead a council of southern tribes. It was later conquered and integrated in the Sabaean kingdom.


Kandake of Meroe. Kush existed from the early bronze age, as a southern rival to Egypt (and ruler for 21 generations), also known as the ancient kingdom in Nubia, and encompassing Meroe (and the Meroitic civilization) plus Napata. They settled in the southern Nile, Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is now Sudan and South Sudan. Not only theur controlled the high Nile trade, but also raided Ethiopia and provided scores of mercenaries and warriors for the Egyptians. Ptolemaic Egypt still relied heavily on this "Nubians" to bolster its numbers. These very capable warriors fought in all its wars.

Ancient Kushite kingdom in 88 BC was ruled by the legendary Queen Kandake (Candace, now Candice). She was at war with the Romans according to Strabo in the 1st century BC. After initial victories of Candace Amanirenas against Roman Egypt, the Kushites were defeated and Napata sacked. But the destruction of the capital of Napata only was a blow to the Kushites and Candace soon engaged in combat the Romans again led by Petronius, which at the contrary seemed to have a revitalizing influence on the kingdom. In 22 BC, the Kushite attacked Qasr Ibrim and a new battle with Petronius legions apparently ended as a draw. By the end of the second campaign Petronius seemed to renounce dealing again with the kingdom which negotiating a peace treaty on favourable terms and a profitable trade agreement. She was preceded by Shanakdakhete (177 BCE–155 BCE) and succeded by Amanirenas (40 BCE–10 BCE). At the early days of the Empire, Kush became a client-state. Its last ruler was Lahideamani (306–314 CE).


Fierce nomads from beyound the mountains, the Yuezhi are mentioned time and agin in ancient annals and are definitely part of these less-known ancient great nomadic kingdoms of Asia. They are mostly known by the chinese as the 月氏, Rouzhi in pinyin. These pastoralists lived in remote and arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu. Hard-pressed by the agressive Xiongnu from the north, they were defeated in the 2nd century BC, splitting into the Greater Yuezhi (Dà Yuèzhī 大月氏) and Lesser Yuezhi (Xiǎo Yuèzhī 小月氏), migrating westwards.

Greater Yuezhi initially migrated northwest into the Ili Valley (on the modern borders of China and Kazakhstan), where they reportedly displaced elements of the Sakas (Scythians). They were driven from the Ili Valley by the Wusun and migrated southward to Sogdia and later settled in Bactria, where they then defeated the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. The Greater Yuezhi have consequently often been identified with Bactrian peoples mentioned in classical European sources, like the Tókharioi (Greek Τοχάριοι; Sanskrit Tukhāra) and Asii (or Asioi). During the 1st century BC, one of the five major Greater Yuezhi tribes in Bactria, the Kushanas (Chinese: 貴霜; pinyin: Guishuang), began to subsume the other tribes and neighbouring peoples. The subsequent Kushan Empire, at its peak in the 3rd century CE, stretched from Turfan in the Tarim Basin, in the north to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain of India in the south. The Kushanas played an important role in the development of trade on the Silk Road and the introduction of Buddhism to China.

Most of the Lesser Yuezhi appear to have migrated southward into Tibet. However, some are reported to have settled among the Qiang people in Qinghai, and to have been involved in the Liangzhou Rebellion (184–221 CE). Others are said to have founded the city state of Cumuḍa (now known as Kumul and Hami 哈密) in the eastern Tarim. A fourth group of Lesser Yuezhi may have become part of the Jie people of Shanxi, who established the 4th Century AD Later Zhao state (although this remains controversial). While the Yuezhi have often been associated with artifacts of extinct cultures in the Tarim Basin, such as the Tarim mummies and the so-called Tocharian languages, the evidence for any such link is purely circumstantial.

Hasmonean Kingdom

The roots of the Biblical state of Israel goes back far in time, and the country was assimilated by the Persians and then by the Seleucids. What was now as judea was part of the Seleucid Empire as a vassal state from 140 to 110, but became an Independent kingdom in 110 BC (until 63 BCE), known as the Hasmonean Kingdom. The Hasmonean dynasty ruled Judea and surrounding regions roughly between c. 140 and c. 116 BCE semi-autonomously from the Seleucids. After the Mithridatic wars, it became a client state of the Roman Republic (63–40 BCE) and then briefly of the Parthian Empire from 40 to 37 BCE.

The nature of the army is little known, but through Roman eyes in the 60 BC civil war, and ancient accounts of local auxiliaries in the Seleucid Army. Royal Guards were Herodian palace spearmen/swordsmen, heavily armoured. Judaean spearmen were used by the Seleucid Army and resembled average thureophoroi. They were able to act as javelineers as well and had a sword for close combat. There is no indication of a local phalanx. Seleucid influence made of the adoption of the feared chariot (Merkava), also an age-old Judaean weapon, preferably mounting archers. Foot archers, both regular (driven from the surrounding villages) and elite ones, armoured and used as an auxiliary guard for the city of Jerusalem. The bulk of light infantry comprised Judaean javelineers but above all slingers (like the famous "zealots", driven from villages in the area, mostly herdsmen). Cavalry was important too. In particular eastern-influenced horse archers, both regular and armoured (mounted garrisons) which had to face the potential threat of Parthian incursions. There were also auxiliaries, in particular various troops that can be supplied by the Nabataeans, as allies or mercenaries.

The Galatians

The Galatian kingdom was established after a Gallic army crossed the Hellespont to the invitation of Nicomedes, king of bithynia in 280 BC to help him warring against his neighbours. They established themselves in Anatolia, and started settling from a small core of 10,000 fighting men and about the same number of women and children, divided into three tribes, Trocmi, Tolistobogii and Tectosages. Defeated by the Seleucids under Antiochus I, they nevertheless raided Phrygia, and the arrival of new Celtic after immigrants felt strong enough to overrunning Bithynia and supported themselves by plundering neighbouring countries. What we know about ancient Galatian warriors ? They were never really "hellenized", although often displaying Greek gear (like helmets and body armour) by taste. They retained their gallic tactics for which they were famed for, but probably relied more on swords than spears due to their plunder. Axemen, and some archers, javelineers (youth) and slingers were also part of the mix. Chieftains retained a host of close bodyguards, very well equipped with chainmails and longswords, while the rest of the band comprised unarmoured or lightly armoured spearmen and swordsmen. Cavalry was also present, reserved to the aristocratic elite, mounted prefferably on large, imported Nisean horses. There were also local cappadocian axemen and militias that could have been raised, although reluctantly. In time, local mercenaries went to local gear (like the famous depciction of a masked galatian in seleucid service). Galatian mercenaries acted generally as schock troops.

The Galatian state comprised tribes divided into cantons, each governed by a chief ('tetrarch') with powers limited only in cases of murder, which were tried before a council of 300 cantons notables(twelve cantons) meeting twenty miles southwest of Ancyra, at the Drunemeton "holy place of oak". The local Cappadocians were left in control of the towns and the land, paying tributes to their new overlords, a military aristocracy that lived in fortified farmsteads and their warrior bands.

Reputed warriors, respected by both the Greeks and Romans, were often hired as mercenaries (sometimes fighting on both sides). If some armed bands ravaged the western half of Asia Minor, as allies of local kingdoms (like the Bythinians), they sided eventually with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax. He tried to defeat Attalus from Pergamon but the Hellenized cities rallied under Attalus's banner, inflicting several crushing defeats on the Galatians and Seleucids. In 232 the Galatians were forced to settle permanently in the region later known as "Galatia". The Dying Gaul statue displayed in Pergamon commemorated the event, one of the rare depiction by Greeks of a gaul.

Eventually Galatia's borders were formally recognized and later the Attalids employed their services in several occasions. In the early 2nd century BC, they fought hard with Antiochus the Great over Asia Minor. In 189 BC, Rome sent Gnaeus Manlius Vulso on an expedition against the Galatians and defeated them. The kingdom declined and fell under Pontic influence, before being finally freed by the Mithridatic Wars, siding with Rome. In 64 BC, Galatia became an official client-state of the Roman empire, and three chiefs were now appointed to represent the tribes (Tolistobogii -West, Trocmii -East, Tectosages -Center, Ancyra). But this arrangement fell when one of these tetrarchs, Deiotarus claimed sole authority over Galatian lands, finally recognized by the Romans as "king" of Galatia. He died and the Romans eventually given the power to a Roman general close to Brutus and Cassius, Amyntas. He was deposed and replaced when Augustus took over the region, which became a Roman province, part of the Empire.

The Saka

The Saka: The Eastern Scythians, also called locally "Saka" and known as the "sai" by the Chinese, actually merits their title of "Royal Scythians". Contrary to their western connterparts, long since conquered and assimilated by the Sarmatians, the Saka rauka remains unbowed and undefeated. Better, they are stronger than ever, bound to conquer the world. They launched raids after raids, once extending their reach to Arachosia.

After 50 BC, They started to attack the Indo-Greeks of Bactria and Sogdiana, Arachosia, and then raided south and turned East, into India itself. They migrated into Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD. They took advantage of the decomposition of the former Mauryan Empire and took a durable foothold in the region, raiding nearby kingdoms.

Satavahana Empire

The Mauryan Empire disappeared in 180 BCE, along with its last ruler, Brihadratha. The subcontinent was ruled by a collection of petty kingdoms. On the West coast was situated the Satavahana Empire, claiming the natural inheritance of the Maurya. This Empire was at war with its eastern neighbour, the Shunga Empire, Kalinga (Mahameghavahana dynasty) and the Indo-Scythians to the North. The dynasty reached its zenith under the rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni and his successor Vasisthiputra Pulamavi, but the kingdom fragmented by the early 3rd century CE. This dynasty issued a state coinage with images of their rulers, formed a cultural and economical bridge with the southern tip of India, supported Brahmanism, Buddhism, and promoted Prakrit literature.

Militarly, there was a consummated art of war, quite ancient between petty kingdoms, with army composition and tactics refined to a very high degree through centuries of warfare. As registered by the vedas, there were many colorful formations used at that time, most of which has been carefully recorded and often poetically associated with flowers or animals. The Ksatriya, were the hereditary warrior class who formed the spine of the professional army; mThere were also mercenaries and freebooters hired as individuals seeking military adventure; troops provided by corporations or guilds; troops supplied by subordinate allies; deserters from the enemy; wild forest and tribesmen. These were not conscript armies as they comprised professional warrior aristocrats and other professionals fed, equipped, trained, paid, and otherwise maintained at great cost to the state. Otherwise levies formed the bulk of the armies.

Satavahana depiction of the city of Kushinagar in the War over the Buddha's Relics.

Combined-arms tactics seems to have been largely influenced by the nearby Chinese, that united at that time, also the era of Sun-Tsu. The basis core of units were twelve men were formed into three units to form a company, then three would form the battalion and again three of these, the aksauhini, or “army,” comprised of 21,870 patti. A sub-division called the samavyuha was equivalent to a Roman legion. For weaponry, bamboo was used for all kind of spears and bows, while exotic armor like Shagreen, but most often simple goat and ox raw skin. Armour war reserved to the Elites, which also wielded a longsword called the nistrimsa.

The Matsya Purana mentions the Andhra dynasty ruling for around 450 years and the Satavahana can be dated to the 3rd century BCE. Megasthenes mentioned a powerful tribe named "Andarae", whose king maintained an army of 100,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and 1,000 elephants. According to one version of the theory Simuka succeeded the Mauryans.

Media Atropatene

The far east Media Atropaenian kingdom was riveted between Parthia south, Armenia and the Caspian Sea. This was a remote and bare land or rich history, the birthplace of the Median empire, later assimilated to the Persian Empire, with potential for greatness. For the whole duration of the Mithridatic wars, Media Atropatene was ruled by king Ariobarzanes I (c. 85 BC – 56 BC). The kingdom was independent soon enough, circa 323 BC when the actual satrap refused to submit to Seleucus. The kingdom was then known simly as "Atropatene". They nevertheless reclaimed inheritance from the old Persian Empire. They ended as vassals of the Arsacids. A king Mithridates (100 BC – 66 BC) ruled as son of Tigranes the Great. The country was in part desertic, with more fertile lands towards the SW coast of the Caspian sea. Fishing and trade there bring some extra revenue, and some profitable trade roads passed through the territory.

The standing army was Persian in every bit, with a long tradition going back to the fundation of the Persian Empire. The usual mix of Sparabara protecting scores of archers armed with the curved bows, Takabara to deal assaults, a kind of elite archer/spearmen guard recalling the Immortals, javelin cavaly, horse archers and camel-borne units completed the picture. No greek or Hellenistic influence there.

Koinon Indohellenon

The Indo-Greek Kingdom took the succession of the Bactrian kingdom, once merged with nearby kingdoms, all former Seleucid Empire far east province. In 100 BC, the Greeks has been pushed eastwards by the great Saka invasion to the mountains borderings india, rugged lands and valleys called Arachosia, Kapisa, and Panchanada in the wide untamed expenses of NW India, on the foothills of the Himalaya. They settled in a cohort of north indian settlements including the kingdom of Taxila, which became the Indian capital of this new composite kingdom. Finances came from the trade with China, passing above India, then desunited and in turmoil after the fall of the Mauryan Empire.

This Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of the northwest regions of modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, but suffered until the christian era from internal unstability, being ruled by than thirty kings, often in conflict with each other. The kingdom was kickstarted by Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius which invaded the subcontinent early in the 2nd century BC. Most celebrated Indo-Greek ruler became Menander (Milinda). He had his capital at Sakala in the Punjab (present-day Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan) and ruled from 165/155 to 130 BC. Part of this fame there came from the fact Menander adopted the Buddhist faith early on, and the tradition went on until the fall of the Kingdom in AD 10. From there, the kingdom was assimilated by the Indo-Parthians, also called the Kushan Empire, first subjugated by the Kushan branch of the Yuezhi.

On the military standpoint, troops showed round helmets in the Greco-Bactrian style, or the flat kausia of the Macedonians. Weapons were spears, swords, and longbow, especially the Gorytos which started to appear in 100 BC. It was fielded as customary by Indo-Greek horsemen by 90 BC, which adopted nomadic warfare traits from the nearby Saka and Yuezhi. Equestrian tradition was strong, armies fielding a large proportion of horsemen, and elephants, but also war chariots. Under Menander, the 62,000 strong armies counted elephants, cavalry, bowmen, and soldiers on foot, and is described counting about 60,000 infantry, 1000 cavalry, 700 elephants by Kalinga, Kharavela. Roman writer Justin also spoke of these numbers when describing Greco-Bactrian Eucratides warring with Indo-Greek Demetrius II. Opposing forced of Saka and Yuezhi often numbered between 100,000 and 200,000 mounted archer warriors. Here in catw, the former bactrian roster was called upon, mixed with indian auxiliaries.


Outside Rome, the Iberians are almost gone, only the Galicians stays independent, as client-state. Same for the Numdians, and the Gauls, the Britannic and Germanic tribes. However the Seleucids are definitively on their last breath, ready for the taking, while the Ptolemies, also sometimes strifed with civil war, are also considered as a quasi-client state of Rome. They feed the city after all. The Greek Cities are a colletion of small independent states spread out between mainland Greece, the Aegean and Asia Minor. They represents old peoples like the Carians and Phrygians among others. Other rose to new heights, like the Parthians (that pretty much conquered the entire Seleucid Empire but Syria) and Armenia took the rest under its most legendary ruler, Tigranes "The Great".


Mithridates VI Eupator (120–63 BC). The legendary ruler who decided of a last stand against the Romans in the East. This extraordinary character is the very subject of this mod, the one which confronted the Romans in an epic struggle through three wars. The Kingdom of pontus was first founded by an adventurer, Mithridates I Ktistes (281–266 BCE) friend of Demetrios (the future Poliorcete), son of Antigonos Monophtalmos, heir of the throne of Macedon. His dynasty helped securing from nothing a sizable kingdom, then Empire through his successors. But no-one could equal the sixth sovereign of what became eventually an Empire living from the control of the Silk road and the black sea, including far north provinces like the ancient bosphoran provinces (Now Crimea, Ukraine).


Ptolemy IX (88-80 BC) - Ptolemaic Egypt remained in appareance the only strong Hellenistic state still standing in the East. But these were only on the surface. In reality since Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator, the country was in a deep pediod of dynastic troubles, bordering on civil war. In 88 BC Prolemy X returned to the throne, and retained it until his death in 80 BC. He was succeeded by Ptolemy XI Alexander II, the son of Ptolemy X. He was lynched by the Alexandrian mob after murdering his stepmother, who was also his cousin, aunt and wife. These sordid dynastic quarrels left Egypt so weakened that the country became a de facto protectorate of Rome, which had by now absorbed most of the Greek world.

Gallic tribes

In 88 BC Gaul was still independant, despite being divided betwene multiple nations of confederations. The country was developed, with a large and dense network of wooden roads large enough for chariots that extended into Germania and Spain. Reknowned craftsmen they exported many artefacts while being at the same time good consumers for Roman and Greek porducts, luxury goods and wine, and their appetite was insatiable, fed by a legions of gold mines. The Gauls were a tempting prize for the Romans then installed in the southern provincia, divided as they were. They only lacked a leader like the future vercingetorix, then still unborn.

Gaul was then a testimony of rival confederations, the Senone to the north and the Arverni south, with the Aedui, Rome's ally, counting points. To the north, fierce Belgians are quite a match, and to the east, the dark forest of germany were not a prized destination either. On the other side of the channel, proud Britons were more trade allies than potential prey. South, the Aquitanni remains undaunted, proud of their Celtiberian nature. East, the Helveti are on the move. But that's another story...

Germanic tribes

Germanic Tribes as a whole covered a wide area. The core was the Suebi hearthland, but there were many Germanic Nations to account for, like marcomanni in the south ("Men of the march"). Around 100 BC, the "Suebi" confederation (as described by Tacitus in 100 AD, so about 200 years after) was gathering momentum. In fact the term broadly classified Germanic speakers in th eyes of Caesar, and therefore the Romans in general. Recently, a mass-migration of Cimbri and Teutones ended disastrously in Southern France, as Marius showed his recklessness and brutal efficiency. On Belgian tribe on the frontier (potential target for you) was the Aduatuci, strongly influenced by Celtic culture, to the point of being more a germano-celtic border people rather than a germanic tribe (at least accrding to Caesar).

"Germanni" means either "neighbours" and "spear carriers" or a combination of both, if named and described from nearby Celts. In all cases, Germanic armies at that time heavily relied on the spear, as a light weapon. Tacitus described the specific, distinctive shape of these, wide, short and triangular. Scientifically, the tribes considered here represented the Jastorf culture, Nordic culture (actual denmark), the Western Harpstedt-Nienburger group and southern Gubin culture and House Urns cultures with a bit of the SE Przeworsk culture. Germanic peoples came to us through three main authors, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, and Tacitus. According to Tacitus, the Suevi group counted the Semnones, Langobardi, Reudigni, Aviones, Anglii, Varini, Eudoses, the Suardones, and Nuithones. He also made a distinction between the coastal tribes which called themselves the Ingævones, the interior tribes called the Herminones, and the external tribes called the Istævones.

About Germanic warfare: Thes tribes only mustered limited numbers of combatants, and so avoided pitch battles, instead focusing on quick raids. The purpose of Germanic raids was generally not to gain territory, but rather to capture resources and secure prestige. These raids were conducted by irregular troops, often formed along family or village lines, in groups of 10 to about 1,000. Leaders of unusual personal magnetism could gather more soldiers for longer periods, but there was no systematic method of gathering and training men, so the death of a charismatic leader could mean the destruction of an army. Armies also often consisted of more than 50 percent noncombatants, as displaced people would travel with large groups of soldiers, the elderly, women, and children. War leaders who were able to secure ample booty for their retainers were able to grow accordingly by attracting warrior bands from nearby villages.

Large bodies of troops, while figuring prominently in the history books, were the exception rather than the rule of ancient warfare. Thus a typical Germanic force might consist of 100 men with the sole goal of raiding a nearby Germanic or foreign village. Thus, most warfare was at their barbarian neighbors.According to Roman sources, when the Germanic Tribes did fight pitched battles, the infantry often adopted wedge formations, each wedge being led by a clan head. Legitimacy for leaders among the Germans resided in their ability to successfully lead armies to victory. Defeat on the battlefield at the hands of the Romans or other "barbarians" often meant the end for a ruler and in some cases, being absorbed by "another, victorious confederation."

Weapons used by the Germanic tribes varied. Some of them used axes, throwing javelins, spears, bows and arrows along with swords. Most of the swords used by the Germanic warriors were those captured from Roman soldiers until the 4th century when German blacksmiths began making the best steel in Europe. Body armor was rarely worn and when it was, it was light by comparison to what the Romans employed; only war leaders wore helmets on the battlefield. Commandeering of Roman weaponry was widespread and the acquisition of the superior Roman armaments allowed the Germanic leaders to exert their power in ways not previously available. It also meant fierce inter-Germanic rivalry which constituted the larger power blocks of the Germanic world.

Arche Seleukoi

In 88 Bc the Seleucid Empire was crumbling, living on its last breath. The decay began with Demetrius I Soter in 161 BC and only grew as Parthia and Armenia grew stronger and hungry for land westwards, unstoppable. The silk road and far east provinces were long gone. The Seleucids in 88 BC were in total collapse, only being used as a buffer state. In the wars in Anatolia between Mithridates VI of Pontus and Sulla of Rome, the Seleucids were largely left alone by both major combatants.

Mithridates' ambitious son-in-law, Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia, however, saw opportunity for expansion in the constant civil strife to the south. In 83 BC, at the invitation of one of the factions in the interminable civil wars, he invaded Syria and soon established himself as ruler of Syria, putting the Seleucid Empire virtually at an end.

Seleucid rule was not entirely over, however. Following the Roman general Lucullus' defeat of both Mithridates and Tigranes in 69 BC, a rump Seleucid kingdom was restored under Antiochus XIII. Even so, civil wars could not be prevented, as another Seleucid, Philip II, contested rule with Antiochus. After the Roman conquest of Pontus, the Romans became increasingly alarmed at the constant source of instability in Syria under the Seleucids. Once Mithridates was defeated by Pompey in 63 BC, Pompey set about the task of remaking the Hellenistic East, by creating new client kingdoms and establishing provinces. While client nations like Armenia and Judea were allowed to continue with some degree of autonomy under local kings, Pompey saw the Seleucids as too troublesome to continue; doing away with both rival Seleucid princes, he made Syria into a Roman province.

Koinon Hellenon

In 88 BC actual Turkey, ancient Asia minor was in fire. The Romans extended east as far as the coast and well into the interior, subjugating and making provinces out of Phrygia and Pergamum, while Lycia, Pisidia, Bithynia, Silicia, and the troubesome Galatians were more or less under the influence of the Romans, while Cappodocia and Lycaonia were under influence of nearby Pontus. This is a quite difficult position to hold, sandwiched between a very ambitious Pontic Empire and Romans on their way to conquer the world. The Greek peninsula came under Roman rule during the 146 BC conquest of Greec (Battle of Corinth), Macedonia became a Roman province and the prefect controlled southern Greece. Athens enjoyed for some time a level of freedom, the greek culture still being admired by the Romans, like Sparta later kept in a "cocoon" for Roman tourists. Some Greek poleis managed to maintain indeed a partial independence and no taxation but Athens and other Greek cities revolted in 88 BC. The same year, the city was sacked by a Roman force led by Sulla.

On the military side, these cities married the latest Hellenistic warfare reforms (Ascepiodotos, 147 BC) with local infantry and cavalry, which already had distinctive attributes, equipments, appearance and tactics. This was especially true of the Phrygians (strong ancient persian influence), Carians (greek-thracian), Bithynians (thracian). Athens of course reformed its army along these lines. Hoplites were replaced by cheaper and more mobile thureophoroi. Phalanx stayed a staple of warfare, but a more mobile infantry was privileged to take care of the flanks and rear. The late thorakitai, a swordsman, was the nearest type to a Roman infantry at that stage.


The Parthian Empire in 88 BC, under the Arsacid dynasts reached almost its greatest extension, threatening what is left of the Seleucid Empire in Coile-Syria, but with powerful Armenians in the north, led by a King which fears nothing. Should Media Atropaene fall into its grip, Caspian sea access would be secured. From 105 BC the power and influence of the Parthian noble houses reached a level of feodal-like opposition to the monarch, but will also proved to be the culprit of the fall of the dynasty in the hands of the Sassanids.

From about 130 BC already, Parthia eastern fringes were weakened by raids and invasions by Sakas, the Yuezhe or Massagetae. Local Arsacid dynasts paid their share whereas the Romans and pontus threat became manifest on their western borders. In these desperate fights, Phraates II and Artabanus I died in combat.

At that point, parthian warfare did not changed a lot. Median Cavalry formed a powerful auxiliary cavalry, while the bulk of Parthian armies were entirely mounted, made by local dynastic hosts, formed by the noble cavalry, superb, heavy cataphacts, archers and lancers which obeyed to same code of "chivarly". They ruled over domains and raised local horsemen mounted on small local, nervous breeds. They acted as horse-archers and javelineers, skirmishing but avoiding combat. Their legendary composite bow was then unmatched, together in range, power and speed. Above all, they practice a fainted retreat followed by the infamous "parthian shot", firing back an arrow while gallop. A single volley that was devasating for Crassus Legions at Carrhae, in 53 BC. This was the definitive blow to Roman confidence for the East. Later with the Empire, they would be defeated in even more dramatic way by the Sassanids (which managed to capture two emperors).


Tigranes the Great (95–55 BC). In the 1th century B.C., Armenians achieved a remarkable rise, reaching its height between 95 and 66 BC under Tigranes the Great, becoming the most powerful kingdom of its time east of the Roman Republic. A member of the Artaxiad Royal House, he managed to bring his mountainous kingdom to the status of an empire, stretching far and wide from the Caucasus to Lebanon. In 83 BC, he managed to intervene during the Seleucid fight for the throne of Syria, which later choose Tigranes as the protector of their kingdom. The rest of the Seleucid Empire was quickly taken and integrated, namely Phoenicia and Cilicia. he then extended southwards, reaching the borders with Ptolemais at Akko. He then reached nortwards to the Pontic Alps. From 85 BC he assumed the ancient Achaemenid title of King of Kings, not even claimed by the Parthians. When Pontic ruler Mithridates found refuge at the Arsacid court, Tigranes had no choice but an open confrontation with Rome.

Lucullus striked and took Tigranes by surprise, only resisted by Mithrobazanes, which was later named commander in chief of the Armenian forces. However his army was beaten and the road to Tigranocerta open. Soon, the Battle of Tigranocerta saw the crishing defeat of what was left of the Armenian army. The city was simply open by disgruntled guards. Later in 68 BC, the Romans met before the old capital of Artaxata Tigranes and Mithridates combined Armeno-Pontian army of 70,000 men, but again defeated them, proving that no standing army with infantry and cavalry could face off the Romans at that point. However Lucullus proved later unable to capture both generals and put an end to the war. His troops ultimately refused to go further and Lucullus was recalled by the Senate and replaced by Pompey. With the younger Tigranes on his side, he succeeded in having Tigranes the Great surrendering. Interestingly enough, in The Art of War (1521), Niccolò Machiavelli attributed Tigranes military failure to his excessive reliance on his cavalry. The Armenian army used to be balanced, but with indeed a much larger emphasis on cavalry compared to the infantry-based Roman Army. From a Persian core, the army comprised spearmen levies (Kentronakan) and an aristocratic cavalry (Azat). Tigranes II army included chariots, 12,000 heavy cavalrymen including cataphracts, 12,000 mounted archers, and 120,000 infantrymen. The Jewish historian Josephus stated a total of 500,000 men including camp followers.


In a literal sense the Sarmatians were one of many ancient nomadic tribes dwelt in steppes on huge area between Danube on the west and Chinese borders on the east. They gradually expelled and assimilated the the Scythians with which they shared some nomadic habits, and somewhat similar way of life and culture.\n\n The Golden Age of the Scythians began in 7th century BC when they became dominating nation in the nothern Black Sea region and conquered large territories in the Middle East. In the end of 6th century BC they defeated the invasion of Persian king Darius I in their land. The Scythians were very aggressive, they frequently raided their neighbours. Among ancient nations the Scythians were considered as perfect horsemen and archers. Many of them were mercenaries. In 3th century BC began the decline of Scythian hegemony.


Burebistra, Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/61 BC to 45/44 BC. He basically created a very large kingdom from a balkanic backwater. The Dacians still makes debate among historians about their ancestry, either Getic or a mix of Scythian, Bastarae, Northern Thracian and celtic aggregation of peoples. In any case, Dacia was in 88 BC definitely on the rise, integrating the former local kingdoms from Dromichaetes, Oroles and Rubobostes, with Bastarnae on the northeast, and Iazyges Sarmatians in the northwest. Around 61 BC Burebista expelled the Celts and moved into the middle Danube, building up an army with an Hellenisic model and also built a serie of citadels exhibiting Greek military architecture for garrisons. In 60/59 BC he defeated and conquered the Boii, followed by the destruction of the Bastarnae peoples. Around 55 BC, Burebista annexed the Greek cities on the coast of the Black Sea coast, including Olbia, Tyras, Histria, Tomis, Callatis, Odessos, Messembria, Apollonia and Dionysopolis, the his kingdom became a weatlhy empire, contributing to built an even more imposing army. However later in the civil wars, Burebista would chose the wrong contender, Pompey gaining the support of Burebista through Akornion of Dionysopolis. Caesar, and later Octavian, future Augustus will not forget it. About 100 BC became Domitian's Dacian War and Trajan's Dacian Wars and Decebalus, but's that another story.

7z version Fix

(BETA) CATW 1.3 Illyrico Bella

The Illyrian Wars in 230 BC. Like the previous opus, based on Mundus Magnus, with a completely revised and overhauled descr_strat, latest catw units (2.0) and RS2 environment, playable on RTW, BI and Alex. The file is called catw 06. This version is set in 230 BC, to feature the Illyrian Wars. At that stage, the illyrian tribes has been unified as a powerful confederation by king Agron, and his wife Teuta took power when he died. The kingdom of the Ardiaei also comprises to the north, the Dardanians, and starts with numerous fleets in the Adriatic.

Status (October 2017): Factions positions Ok but KTM when starting campaigns.

Zip Version (1.1 go)

(BETA) CATW 1.4 Emanamer

Arminius is quite a figure in "German" history (he was revived in the context of late XIXth century nationalism and rivalry with Napoleonic France, which erected a similar statue facing east, of Vercingetorix). Hostage in Rome at a young age he was the son of the tribal chieftain of the Cherusci, then under the rule of a Roman governor. This was during Augustus time, the very beginning of the Roman Empire following decades of bitter and global civil wars which saw the end of the Republic. At that time the Romans invaded Britain, had Gaul and Belgium under their grasp, and were moving east through Germania. Although afraid by theses cold land of dark forests and fierce barbarians, they hoped to bring civilization to the numerous tribes dwelling in the area of the Rhenus, funding new garrisons and cities around, filled with wonders and comfort to showcase the Roman way of life. The stake was high. One of these tribes was the Sigambri. Others were the Chatti, Markomanni, Alamani, Franks, and many more, including a defiant confederation of the Suebi. In Rome, Arminius (perhaps Ermanamer was his real name) quickly arose through the ranks of the Roman Army as a capable leader and cavalry auxilia. When back in his homeland however it seems he saw a very different picture of what he first idealized.

There, a ruthless and not very bright governor, Varrus, was driving the population to the brink of revolt by his arrogant demands and harsh punishments. For any reasons, this seemed to dive deeply in Arminius, poised to be the new leader for his people after his father. The young Cherusci apparently completely turned against the Romans, but rather than leading an army to face the Roman legions frontally, set careful preparations long before any actions, gathering tribes to mount a secret ambush of biblical proportion. At the same time he gained the unflinching confidence of Varrus, and when the day came, he drove his legions into the forest, towards the site of an ongoing attack (which was a bait). Doing so, when the time came, he left the column to gather his troops arrived in secret and well prepared, including fortifications all along the Roman path. The battle which follow will remain one of the most famous in history: Teutoburg Forest. The result was the total annihilation of two Roman legions and the death of Varrus, then a flurry of deliberate attacks on Roman settlements. As a result, Emperor Augustus, badly hit by the news, decided to recall his troops beyond the Rhine and set up a serie of fortifications that will stand until the Germanic Migrations of the Christian Era. This battle alone made Germany independent and oblivious from Roman and Latin civilization, during four centuries, unlike France, UK, and many countries in Europe.

This project is an amazing one, set in 9AD with a Roman Empire at its peak geographically, deep beyond the Rhine. It also impose a complete revision of the factions: Of the old ones, only Rome (Now the Empire) and a powerful Parthian Empire in the East are sure to be there. But of course the focus will be on the many Roman Tribes present north of the map, including the Sicambri, Suevi, Chatti, the Cheruschi confederation, some independent Celts (like the Boii) and the Picts, the Dacians, at the peak of their power, and in the east the Sarmatians, Indo-Scythians, Satavahana Empire in India, south the Arabians of Palmyria & Saba, the Moors (possibly), the Bosporan Kingdom, or the Batonian Confederation (which replace Thrace). The latter was a large revolt of the Roman province of Illyricum. This comprised Daesitiates (Bato as leader), Breuci, Dalmatae, Andizetes, Pannonians, Pirustae, Liburnians and Iapydes. On their side the Romans were supported by client-state Odrysians (Thrace).

Status (October 2017): Factions OK. Working fine, but a lot of work on each factions, map, etc. Just beginning.

7z Version (446 mo)

Catw 1.2 Samniti Bello

This opus is classical age: total war as it should have been. There is a more fitting faction setting for 300 BC, starting with new factions that are crucial for this campaign depicting the early Roman army and the last Samnite War. In 298 it was nearing its dramatic conclusion, with Gellius Egnatius, raising a coalition of all Samnites tribes and allied Italics south, and Etruscans and Senones and Cenomani attacking from the north. It was also a last-ditch effort of the Etruscans to expel the Romans, their long-gone royal colony since 700 BC. Will you, Rome, survive this last threat ?

Zip version 24/10/2017 (960 mo) 7z version

In 300 BC, the Samnites and their allies the Etruscans, and later Senone transapine gauls and Umbrians, with their allies the Greek cities from Magna Graecia are all hostile towards Rome's rising star and agressive diplomacy. The time was ripe for a third Samnite war, the last and most fearsome of them all.

Behind this, Epirus, to the east, can be a threat if allied with the Samnito-Etruscans and "Magna Grecia", and the turbulent Illyrian tribes are going to be united by an ambitious Dardanian king, Cleitus (335-295 BC). Like the previous version of catw 1.1, Greek Cities are now the Bosporan Kingdom in the black sea (crimea), with interesting greek-scythian features, since "Greece" is now reduced to independent Sparta. The Arverni, Bellovaci (Belgians) and Senones are also present, but the great novelty is Massalia, depicted for the first time, replacing pontus that should not exist in 300 BC. Massalia presents interesting classical Greek features, with a large pool of Gallic auxiliaries, and two cities, including Emporion on the north-east Iberian coast and a powerful fleet. A rival for Carthage. Also, the Getae are move further east, to Tomi (Scythia Parva) on the black sea coast. Its powerful Thracian and Macedonian neighbours makes it a very challenging faction to play.

Carthage, at that time was relatively less well established in the Mediterranean, in particular in Spain, with just one settlement roughly corresponding to the ancient Tartessian culture area. However they are in force in Sicily, facing an independent but powerful Syracuse. To the eastern Mediterranean, the Diadochi are still at war. These are the 1st generation, the famous companions of Alexander the Great: Seleucos and Ptolemy I Soter, Cassander in Macedon, and Lysimachus's empire (Thrace) which now encompass much of the coastal, northern and western asia minor, including Phrygia, caria, pontus, Pergamum... Four great eastern empires ready to collide, once again, to decide who will rule the world. The battle of Ipsus (302 BC) recently reshuffled positions of these charismatic leaders. The steppes are inhabited by the mighty Sarmatians, which left the Scythians playable as auxiliaries by Bosporos.

Why 1.2 ?

Because this version of catw is based on catw 1.1, with the same, famous unit rosters, but with the addition of catw 2.0 animations, and the gradual implementation of 2.0 features (AI, formations, environment...).

Other versions in development

"Samniti Bello" is set in 300 BC, but there are three other versions currently in long-term development: One set in 230 BC (the Illyrian wars) (catw 1.3 or catw06) and the other in 9 AD (Arminius lead of the germanic tribes, and the battle of the teutoburg Forest) (catw 1.4 or catw07). The third is about the Pontic wars (88 BC) (catw 1.5 or catw08), now with a playable beta - see above.

About the new factions


Gellius Egnatus (+ 295 BC)

He was the leader of the Varriani tribe of the Samnites during the Third Samnite War, which broke out in 298 BC. By the end of the second campaign the Samnites appeared completely defeated, however in the following year Gellius Egnatius marched into Etruria, and roused the Etruscans to a close co-operation against Rome. This had the effect of withdrawing Roman troops from Samnium for a period of time; but the forces of the confederates were defeated by the combined armies of consuls Lucius Volumnius Flamma Violens and Appius Claudius Caecus.

In the fourth campaign in 295 BC Egnatius induced the Gauls and the Umbrians to join the confederacy; but due to the withdrawal of the Etruscans and the Umbrians, the Gauls and the Samnites fell back beyond the Apennines, and were met by the Romans near the town of Sentinum. A decisive battle, marked by the heroic devotion of P. Decius Mus, ensured that the Samnites were defeated and their leader Egnatius was slain.


Massalia, now Marseille, Southern France, was never featured in catw before, now it's time. The city was funded by the Phoceans in circa 600 BC, and became like Carthage one of the most important city-state and port in the Western Mediterranean. The colonia started in a region ingabited by a Gallic tribe called the Ligurians, and the site was itself part of the Segobrigae tribe. The city traded with the phoenicians (and later Cathaginians), Etruscans, Iberians, and from 300 BC, with the Romans with which it was allied soon, and stayed faithful until the first Empire.

Religious habits included the veneration of cults from Asia Minor, as the Phoceans were settled near Smyrna. According to Latin author Justinius, the Massilians has been compelled because of the poverty of the surrounding soils to concentrate on the sea through trade, fishing and also piracy. Like Carthage, Massalia is the basis for a commercial empire in the Souther coast of Gaul, with fundation of Agathe Tychè (Agde), Olbia (Hyères), Antipolis (Antibes) Nikaïa (Nice) and later Alalia (Aléria) in Corisca, Elea (Salerno), or Emporion (Empúries) in Iberia.

On a military standpoint, Massalia is rich and can afford to raise local mercenaries among the Ligurians and surrounding gallic tribes, sardinian archers, corsican mountaineers, balearic slingers, iberian and of course Greek mercenaries from all over the Mediterranean. The core was the Greek hoplitic phalanx, perhaps influenced by the locals (chainmail) with peltasts and little cavalry as the surrounding area was mountainous. Massalian navy was quite powerful, relying on trieres and penteres as much as the Hellenitic city-states of the time. Massilian hoplites, machairaphoroi, militia hoplites, fast hoplites, armoured hoplites, iphikrates hoplites, thuerophoroi, epibatai.

Bosporan Kingdom

The Kingdom of Bosporus was an ensemble of greek city states in the Crimean peninsula. Since the Scythians are not depicted as a faction, but the sarmatians are, the "last scythians" can be played with this faction. The Kingdom of Bosporus was established on the basis of greek trading posts settled from the sixth century bC along the western coasts of the Black Sea, and particularly the Crimean peninsula. Between Thrace and Scythia, the Kingdom was also the first "Hellenistic" state because of its far away Greek population and native mix. The strength of the Kingdom lies in its commercial prosperity: In effect, Bosporos built his first fortune with the control of trade between east and west, north and south of the Black Sea, Chernonesos becoming the local equivalent Carthage and Syracuse. Its trade relations with Persia were good, and after the chaos resulting from the disintegration of the empire, some floating is felt in the local ruling family, the Spartocids Thracians established since 438 BC, although but maintained their authority until 110 BC. jc. De facto they went later into the orbit of Pontus, then the Romans.

The Kingdom made its fortune through the export of grains (fertile soil and sunny in the region gave extensive lands to wheat), dried fish and slavery. These were Thracians or from the vast steppes of Scythia and further east still. The Scythians were also deemed excellent "head hunters". What is the relationship between the Scythian nobility and artisans who gave probably the finest jewelry and a testimony of Scythian culture. These were found in many Kurgans, tombs of nobles in the current Ukraine, currently at the Museum of hemitage in Moscow and private collections. These include the famous comb of Solokha, who besides being a work of art of rare quality, testified much better than anything else of the equipment of Scythian warriors at that time.

The Kingdom of Bosphorus contributed heavily to settle nomadic Scythians. The latter, former Iranian people, reigned supreme on the western steppe and beyond the Aral Sea. Aside kurgan the left few signs on deer stones concentrated in the coastal region. This did not get without fighting with the warlike tribes from the north-east, devouring valuable resources and wealth of these countries. Satyrus, became a tyrant, then king, and had to battle against the Thateans, with cavalry numerically matching infantry. In 300 bC, the military power of the kingdom was based on the strength of these Scythian warriors and a hard core of Greek infantry supported by Thracian mercenaries. A combination that could be decisive on many battlefields if the Spartocids Kings ever develop the right ambition.

catw 1.2 development log

-changed logos
-changed UI portaits
-changed BG visuals
-changed all icons
-changed all texts
-changed symbols
-pontus moved to massalia
-getic moved to scythia Parva
-changed getic roster
-convert getia to slave, add new roster
-updated banners
-give 8 settlements to thrace
-2 seleucid pos changed, slave pos changed
-test ok
-boost rosters, boost armies pytros, sauthes, change pos ok
-add navy ok
-Macedon, add aetolia and attica ok
-mod rosters, new names euboea, lesbos ok
-add macedonian navy ok
-bosporos: move greek faction to crimea ok
-move army, ambassador, spy ok
-add port chernosesus ok
-arverni: move numidia to gaul: ok
-new powerful numidian roster Cirta : ok
-add emporion to massilia: ok
-changed pontic names for massalian names: ok
-add massilian hoplites: ok
-change factions colors - senate, scipii, brutii: ok
-change culture numidia> gauls, pontus> greek, senate, scipii, brutii: ok
-mod descr_sm_faction et descr_character: ok
-EDB EDU DMB numidia/arverni: ok
-carthage deleted bastetania, change rosters, change navy: ok
-boost spanish indep rosters ok
-added mauryan rosters ok
-add nervii to bellovaci, mod roster ok
-mod spanish settlements ok
-mod spanish start rosters ok
-change banners ok
-add new entries numidia, gaul, britons EDB
-changed roman to romans_julii EDU, EDB

May 2017: catw 04.9 keltoi tromos

This standalone update called "Celtic Terror" in Greek is the latest version of catw 0.4. This still features mundus magnus on 280 BC, but focuses this time of the second major event of the time, the Gallic invasions in the Balkans, with lots of corrections and modifications for all factions.

The mod is based on a major historical event, when a huge Gallic army initially led by Cambaules settled in Thrace in 280. Their origin was most probably Southeastern France for the most (Rhone valley), and rather than being treated as a horde, the faction still possesses the Aedui (Bibracte) and Allobroges (Vienna and Lugdunum) areas, but as the history goes, Brennus (the new leader, also called Acichorius, apparently his real name) army separated into three divisions, himself bound to Illyria and Dalmatia from Paeonia (This is by the way your faction leader), another bound to conquer Thrace under Cerethurios (a name created for the mod), and another bound to invade Macedon under Bolgios (Already a massive celtic slave army in catw 0.4). So all these divisions are present on the map at the beginning of the game, with massive rosters.

To put things in perspective, let's see how real history unfolded:

The Gauls under Bolgios went ahead against the whole Macedonian army led by the young would-be king Ptolemy Keraunos (which was killed) and his army wrecked. However other forces were mobilized by a Macedonian nobleman called Sosthenes and repulsed the assault. Brennus came to the rescue however and mustered his forces, attacked Sosthenes, and defeated him. Then he reunited his army with some of Bolgios's forces and Cerethurios (eastern division, bound to the Thracians and Triballi). He launched a potentially lucrative raid on Greece, his army numbering about 152,000 infantry and 24,400 cavalry (Much more if each cavalryman possibly riding two mounted servants, a system called trimarcisia according to Pausanias).

The Gauls already reached Phthiotis and Magnesia when the coalized Greeks at Thermopylae led by Athenian general Calippus, and purposedly broke the bridges on the river Spercheios where he thought to meet Brennus. But the latter sent about 10,000 that crossed by night and routed the greek forces on the opposite bank, which fled and joined the main army. The Gauls were able to command locals to rebuilt the bridges and the whole army crossed. However, when heading straight into Greek's pikes at Thermopylae their first assault was rebuffed. Brennus then devised a plan to divise the Greeks and sent 40,000 infantry and 800 cavalry under Combutis and Orestorius back over the Spercheius to invade Aetolia. The plan worked as the whole Aetolian army left, but the Gallic army sent lost almost half of its troops when returning to Thermopylae. Meanwhile some locals were intimidated into showing Brennus a mountain pass, allowing a rear attack. That way the Greeks were eventually defeated.

Brennus then famously attacked Delphi, then the most sacred site outside the Parthenon in Greece. As intended, he uncovered a rich loot (possibly more than fifteen thousand talents of gold and silver), but the events turned semi-legendary and quite foggy, according to various Greek and Latin authors. Possibly scared by a severe thunderstorm (caused by the wrath of the gods ?) they were beaten and retreated to the Spercheius river, Brennus committing suicide.

The remnants of his army by 278 BC went into Asia minor, crossing the Hellespont (probably at the demand of Bithynia's king) and settling in an area of present Turkey called "Galatia" around Ancyra. Yes, the famous Asian Celts that served as mercenaries until the Roman conquest get rid of the remnants of the Diadochi. Others settled in Thylis for 100 years, leaving a mixed civilization called the "Gallo-thracians". To celebrate their victory the Greeks Amphictyonic League instituted new games called the Delphic Soteria (savior games). The Tectosages (part of the army) are said to have carried out part of the treasury back to Tolosa (now Toulouse).

So, now you know, how will you perform ?
Read more (wikipedia)

About catw 04.9 factions

catw 04 factions


The Pretanoi, Priteni, or "miserable little Britons" were in fact a wide array of northerwestern Celtic tribes feared by the Romans. Outside the classic image of the war chariots and woad warriors, the local southern Britannic population, of Celtic stock and culture, had long commercial ties with the continent and probably related both to the Gauls and Belgians, even Frisians. This was a multitude a tribes, known in Caesar time as the Atrebates and Belgae, Cantiaci, Catuvellauni, Dobunni, Dumnonii, Durotriges, Regnenses, Textoverdi, Trinovantes and Iceni, the latter being best known for Boadicea bloody rebellion in Augustus reign.

For the sake of this mod, the Priteni are therefore presented as a loose confederation of southern tribes. With this in mind, you still have plenty of room to expand in Britain and Hibernia (Ireland) even before thinking of crossing the channel and taking on the fearsome Belgae...


The Armenians: In the 6th century B.C., Armenians settled in the kingdom of Urarty (the Assyrian name for Ararat), which was in decline. Under Tigran the Great the Armenian empire reached its height and became one of the most powerful in Asia, stretching from the Caspian to the Mediterranean Seas. Throughout most of its long history, however, Armenia has been invaded by a succession of empires. Under constant threat of domination by foreign forces, Armenians became both cosmopolitan as well as fierce protectors of their culture and tradition. Now, in 280 BC when this mod begins, Armenia is no longer a satrapy, and is in the sphere of influence of the seleucid Empire. In fact, under Orontid dynasty (since 590 BC), the country detains now a considerable degree of autonomy and can certainly wage war to neighbouring kingdoms, like the young Pontic kingdom, even trying to take on a largely divided Asia minor, before turning its attention to the Seleucid Empire itself.

Armenian armies largely relies on footsoldiers as well as cavalry in equal part, as its still a relatively mountainous area. Hellenistic influence over Persian traditions and local specificities assures a unique gameplay.


Pyrrhos of Epirus (297–272) was the son of Aeacides and Phthia, a Thessalian woman, and a second cousin of Alexander the Great (via Alexander's mother, Olympias). When his father was dethroned, his family took refuge with Glaukias of the Taulantians, one of the largest Illyrian tribes. Pyrrhus was raised by Beroea, Glaukias's wife and a Molossian of the Aeacidae dynasty.

Glaukias restored Pyrrhus to the throne in 306 BC until banished again in 302 BC by his enemy, Cassander. He went on to serve as an officer in the wars of the Diadochi, under command of his brother-in-law Demetrius Poliorcetes. In 298 BC, taken hostage to Alexandria, he latter married Ptolemy I's stepdaughter Antigone and restored his kingdom in Epirus in 297 BC with financial and military aid from Ptolemy I. His co-ruler Neoptolemus II of Epirus was murdered and in 295 BC, he transferred his capital to Ambrakia and went to war against Demetrius and in 292 BC, invading Thessaly. By 286 BC, Pyrrhus took control over the kingdom of Macedon, but was driven out of Macedon by Lysimachus in 284 BC.

The Greek city of Tarentum, in Magna Grecia (southern Italy), fell out with Rome due to a violation of an old treaty that specified Rome was not to send warships into the Tarentine Gulf. In 282 BC, the Romans installed garrisons in the Greek cities of Thurii (on the western end of the Tarentine Gulf), Locri, and Rhegium, and sent warships to Thurii. Although this was designed as a measure against the Italian peoples of Lucania, the Tarentines grew nervous and attacked the Romans in Thurii, driving the Roman garrison from the city and sinking several Roman warships.

Tarentum was now faced with a Roman attack and certain defeat, unless they could enlist the aid of greater powers. Rome had already made itself into a major power, and was poised to subdue all the Greek cities in Magna Graecia. The Tarentines asked Pyrrhus to lead their war against the Romans. Pyrrhus was encouraged to aid the Tarentines by the Oracle of Delphi. His goals were not, however, selfless. He recognized the possibility of carving out an empire for himself in Italy. He made an alliance with Ptolemy Ceraunus, King of Macedon and his most powerful neighbor, and arrived in Italy in 280 BC with an army consisting of 20,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry, 2,000 archers, 500 slingers, and 20 war elephants in a bid to subdue the Romans. The elephants had been loaned to him by Ptolemy II, who had also promised 9,000 soldiers and a further 50 elephants to defend Epirus while Pyrrhus and his army were away. The rest, as they say, is history but also your own choices and skills.


The native name for "Carthage", according to reconstructed semitic roots. y tradition, Carthage was founded by Queen Dido who had fled from the city of Tyre in Phoenicia after her husband was killed by her brother. Even in the days of legend there was a link with Rome, because Aeneas of Troy, the father to the Romans, was the lover of Dido and then abandoned her. In her grief she killed herself, cursing Aeneas and his descendants as she died.

Carthage - the name means ‘new town’ - continued to flourish, a Phoenician colony that outgrew and survived its parent land. The Phoenicians - and their successors the Carthaginians - must be credited with the invention of glass, the bireme galley and with being expert traders thanks to their superb navigational skills. Even before the Greeks reached the Western Mediterranean, Carthage was a superbly wealthy city, thanks to its mastery of the seas. Carthaginian colonies - colonies of the original Phoenician colony - now ring the sea (modern Barcelona is named after the famous Barca family). Carthage is a maritime power, with only a relatively small landowning class to provide military land power. This, however, does not matter as long as Carthage continues to be wealthy. Its coffers pay for mercenaries in abundance when the city needs to go to war.

And it is this wealth, mastery of trade and expansion along the Mediterranean coast towards Italy that brings Carthage into direct confrontation with the newly rising power of Rome. Now, perhaps, it is time for Dido’s curse to have its full effects on the children of Aeneas. In 280 BC indeed, Hanno is in Sicily with an army bound to intervene eastwards, as the "Mamertines" are rampaging eastern Sicily. These former mercenaries of Agathocles, left unpaid, captured Messana, and from there, launch raids in the surrounding countryside. It's time for the Barcas to show their skills and perhaps, defeat age-old local rival Syracuse and take the whole of Sicily before the Romans could react.


The Getic people occupies a section of Eastern Europe corresponding roughly to modern South-Eastern Romania. They had been called Getae by the Greeks and Daci by the Romans. Of advanced material culture, with a tribal organization, though tribal in nature, the Dacians had attained a considerable degree of civilization by the time they first became known to the Romans. The Getics are however of a more obscure origin. Your role as the Getic Leader is to take the whole Balkanic region and create a true dynasty. However, this will not be easy. The neighbouring Thracian, Macedonians and northern barbarian of untold ferocity are within striking distance, not to mention Rome has its eyes set to subdue you at the first chance they get.

Moreover, in 280 BC, the "Northern Thracians" are not yet united. Sarmizegetusa, possibly the cradle of the future "Daioi" (Dacians) is independent. So you start eastwards, immediately in the vicinity of Thrace. But your most serious and immediate concern are Brennus huge gallic armies, bound to conquer your territory, and Thrace after you. Should you survive it (you were given an army for that), there are still threat and opportunities to follow. Challenging for any player, although the Getic army is quite balanced, with good melee infantry, archers, but also pikemen and excellent cavalry, including local, scythian-influenced(and Sarmatian) horse archers in later period.

Achaioi Hegemon

Although a bit artificially, you plays the Achaian and Aetolian leagues, in this one. The Aetolian and the Achaean League managed to avoid stagnation, which was the fate of many other greek cities. The Aetolian confederation was founded in the mid-4th century BC, with a loose political association, the Aetolian Koinon (public), and resulted in it's completed form after the repulse of the Gauls (278 BC), and the undertaking of the protection of the Oracle of Delphi. The regime was democratic and all citizens were entitled to participate in the meetings and decisions. In the 3rd century BC acquired even more power and authority, including all the cities of the central Greece from Maliakos to the Corinthian Gulf and the estuary of Achelous River.

The Achaean League in the early 3rd century BC included the association of certain cities of Achaia, but until the 2nd cent. BC, included almost the whole Peloponnesus. The way that the Achaean League was organized was different from that of the Aetolian, because it incorporates elements of the monarchy system. The cities retained their governments, and the confederation was governed by a council which was attended by all the citizens who had reached the age of 30, and by the rulers who had increased their powers. The League retained a parliament (or senate) with 120 members, which mainly concentrated on the external relations. You get the chance to play the Athenians, Spartans, Corinthians among others, and Rhodes, with a modern army and sizeable Athenian fleet.


Egypt was one part of Alexander the Great empire no that long ago, and by anyone’s standards it is an ancient land. It is now ruled by Greek Pharaohs, the descendants of Ptolemy I, one of Alexander’s able generals. The Ptolemaic dynasty adjusted rapidly to Egyptian ways and adopted the royal ways of the Pharaohs - including divine status and marriage between the Pharaoh and his sister in each generation. All the succeeding Pharaohs have been called Ptolemy, and their sisters (more often than not) Cleopatra in the Egyptian fashion.

Egypt, therefore, is even a richer empire under the new Hellenistic Pharaohs, largely open to the world. It is now a centre of learning for the Greek world. The Ptolemies hold together a formidable kingdom and must be seen as a major power in the Eastern Mediterranean. Their potential in warfare against the other successor states is also impressive, and an aggressive Pharaoh could well expand Egypt’s boundaries far beyond the Nile valley...

By 280 BC you start with a relatively easy position, with plenty or lands to conquer and an unrivalled navy in the whole Mediterranean. There are many opportunities in all directions, but historically the empire was weakened by years of war with the Seleucids, notably over Coile-Syria. At that time, the Empire has reached its largest extent, with a foot in Asia minor, a hold in Crete, and control of most of the middle-east coast, but not the red sea yet. Should you get there, the Sabaeans are in you way. West, the Carthaginians, bound to control the central Mediterranean are certainly also a threat to your west flank.

Aedui (The great invasion)

The Aedui, Tectosages (and sub-tribes like the Trocmi), Allobroges, and others tribes of the Eastern part of Gaul, were probably those that took part in the great Balkanic invasion of 280 BCE (see above). The Gauls in 280 BC had yet not reached the characteristic mobility of their armies at the time Caesar came in 58 BC. Although they largely count on intimidation and shock with an impressive melee infantry, Gallic armies at that time were more complex, and catw has been at the forefront of this research. A typical Gallic army back then comprised mostly spearmen that fought in close order, shieldwalls which were somewhat even closer than the Greek hoplitic formation due to their narrower shields. The warrior class (Cingetos) takes place in the center-front, together with village chieftains, their retinue, high nobles and their own servants and bodyguards called Ambactes, the Soldurii, Champions, and a wide array of lighter sword-and-javelin or more commonly spear-and-javelin troops, the Gaelaiche and Gaesate on the wings of this elite core, plus slingers, archers and skirmishers open the march.

Peasant levies (atectoi), and trained ones (Lugoae) took place on the rearguard, while cavalry and chariots took place on the wings. Famously chariots delivered their noble warrior at high speed for a few slashes on the back of the opposing or in the melee, they were used as fast transportation systems, early APCs... Gallic cavalry was reputed and fought opposing cavalry or dismounted as quick reinforcement if needed. Like some Germanic tribes, the Gauls practiced combined infantry and cavalry tactics to best effect.


The Suevi (Sweboz) also called Suebi, Suavi or Suevians were probably the dominant German tribe, which inhabited modern Denmark. They had been first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with his battles against Ariovistus in Gaul, around 58 BC. While Caesar treated them as one Germanic tribe within an alliance, though the largest and most warlike, later authors, such as Tacitus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo, specified that the Suevi do not, like the Chatti or Tencteri, constitute a single nation. They actually occupy more than half of Germania, and are divided into a number of distinct tribes under distinct names, though all generally are called Suebi". At one time, classical ethnography had applied the name Suevi to so many Germanic tribes that it appeared as though in the first centuries A.D. this native name would replace the foreign name Germans.

Classical authors noted that the Suevic tribes, compared to other Germanic tribes, were very mobile and not reliant on agriculture. Various Suevic groups moved from the direction of the Baltic Sea and the Elbe, becoming a periodic threat to the Roman Empire on their Rhine and Danube frontiers. Towards the end of the empire, the Alemanni, also referred to as Suebi, first settled in the Agri Decumates and then crossed the Rhine and occupied Alsace. An area in southwest Germany is still called Swabia, which name derives from the Suebi. (In a broader sense, their eastern neighbours, the Bavarians and Thuringii, can be said to have Suebic ancestry.) Other Suebi entered Gaul and some moved as far as Gallaecia (modern Galicia, in Spain, and Northern Portugal), where they established the Kingdom of the Suebi, which lasted for 170 years until its integration into the Visigothic Kingdom. More generally, the Suebian language and culture is associated with the Irminones and thought to encompass the "High German" cultures and dialects of the Thuringii, Bavarians and Lombards, among others.

But from the time of Caesar, to 280 BC it is a long way to go... What is sure is that the Suebi (Proto-Germanic swēbaz, either based on the Proto-Germanic root *swē- meaning ones own people) expanded from the area known as Denmark, as portrayed in this mod. So there still is quite room for expansion.


In catw, especially 280 BC you start with already the near mastery of Italy but the southern city-states (Magna Graecia). The Pyrrhic wars would be just the occasion needed to reform the army from the Camilian Censes organization to the so-called "Polybian", simpler triplex acies, but also to take back this southern sector as a prize. It was also a prelude to the 1st Punic wars. It is a pivotal time as Pyrrhus, which saw himself as the new Alexander, just arrived into Italy with his multicultural army to help Great Greece, and especially Tarentum. These Greek Cities indeed feels threatened by the growing power of Roman influence over the Peninsula. But the perile is not limited to the South: In the North too, from two Senones cities, the dark shadow of the abhorred Gauls is lurking above the republic. Their intervention a hundred years ago left a sour taste and feed tales of hatred for the Gauls. The memory of it is still vivid.

Anyway, Rome is strong, has learned a great deal about warfare and its alliance system in Italy is robust. Now that the Etruscans are gone and the Samnites beaten, Rome is ready for new challenges in Italy and abroad. In addition to Polybian classic units (and later legionaries), you have quite an array of allied Italic units to start with.


In this year of 280 BC, the cradle of the Hellenism, the country that saw Alexander the Great born, is in a very short quiet period in-between a bloody civil war. Demetrius I Poliorcetes (294–287 BC) was the last ruler before Pyrrhos took control of Makedon. Demetrius I Poliorcetes (the "city-taker" famous for his giant siege towers) was the first Antigonid king of Macedon. Pyrrhos of Epirus then took over briefly Makedon from 286 to 284 BC, but afterwards the kingdom fell into civil war (288-276 BC). Lysimachus indeed invaded the area, expelled his former co-ruler and reigned for a short time: In 281 BC, he indeed crossed the Hellespont into Lydia, fought and died at the decisive Battle of Corupedium.

Ptolemy Keraunos was then in his turn King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC. His epithet meant "Thunder" or "Thunderbolt". He was the eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter, Pharaoh of Egypt, but left Egypt in 282 BC, was his younger brother was crowned as Ptolemy II. He was at the court of Lysimachus, king of Thrace. When the latter died at Courupedium, he just went to the court of Seleucus in the East to seek aid from Seleucus I Nicator. However Ptolemy Keraunos murdered Seleucus I in order to gain the power of his former protector. He rushed to Lysimacheia where he had himself acclaimed king by the Macedonian army, but also formally relinquished his claim to the Egyptian throne, marrying Arsinoe, the widow of Lysimachus. He also allied with Pyrrhus. He ruled over a large part of Greece as well, as Demetrius I Poliorcetes was then confined in the city of Demetrias, Thessaly. Ptolemy Keraunos was captured and killed during the wars against a large Gallic Army led by Bolgius. He was succeeded by Antipater Etesias which reign lasted only a period of 45 days, when he was in turn deposed by Sosthenes in 279. Again, almost three years of chaos and civil war followed.
Antigonus II Gonatas (276–239 BC), son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila, grandson of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, at last took charge of the Kingdom and re-established the Antigonid dynasty. His wife, Phila, was the daughter of his sister, Stratonice. Only one known legitimate child, Demetrius II Aetolicus. He followed by three other rulers until 168 BC and the death of Perseus, and De Facto domination of Rome.

So, in these troubled times, you are Ptolemy Keraunos, the ruler in charge. Can you stabilize the kingdom, keep the Gauls at bay and gave back Makedon its former glory ?


This faction was displayed in catw 1.0 and catw 2.0, but as an independent (slave) one. This is the first time it is playable in catw.
This is 280 BC and you are Bindusara, the Indian Emperor. His most famous father war Chandragupta Maurya, still today a tutelary, semi-legendary figure, that for the first time, united the Indian Mahajanapadas after long and bloody wars, from the Nanda Empire. The rule of the Mauryans started from 324 BCE until Chandragupta's voluntary retirement and abdication in favour of his son in 297 BCE. The Nanda Empire's army numbered 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 chariots, and 6,000 war elephants, and said to have dissuaded Alexander to follow-on his conquest of India. The Emperor has also retaken Seleucus' eastern territories and afterwards turned his attention to the Indian Sub-continent. Never the entire continent of India has been united this way. At some point his army numbered 400,000 soldiers, according to Strabo.

The art of war in this area was quite ancient between petty kingdoms and army composition and tactics has been refined to a very high degree. As registered by the vedas, there were many colorful formations used at that time, most of which has been carefully recorded and often poetically associated with flowers or animals. The Ksatriya, were the hereditary warrior class who formed the spine of the professional army; mThere were also mercenaries and freebooters hired as individuals seeking military adventure; troops provided by corporations or guilds; troops supplied by subordinate allies; deserters from the enemy; wild forest and tribesmen. These were not conscript armies as they comprised professional warrior aristocrats and other professionals fed, equipped, trained, paid, and otherwise maintained at great cost to the state. Otherwise levies formed the bulk of the armies. Combined-arms tactics seems to have been largely influenced by the nearby Chinese, that united at that time, also the era of Sun-Tsu. The basis core of units were twelve men were formed into three units to form a company, then three would form the battalion and again three of these, the aksauhini, or “army,” comprised of 21,870 patti. A sub-division called the samavyuha was equivalent to a Roman legion. For weaponry, bamboo was used for all kind of spears and bows, while exotic armor like Shagreen, but most often simple goat and ox raw skin. Armour war reserved to the Elites, which also wielded a longsword called the nistrimsa.


The Parthians are a nomadic people who conquered and settled in the area near the Caspian Sea in the 4th century BC as part of the Dahae confederation. Since that time the Parthians, under their Arsacid rulers (named after King Arsaces I), have fiercely maintained their independence. The Seleucids have, from time to time, claimed to be the overlords of Parthia and, have actually been strong enough to try to enforce their claim. The Parthian kings are not yet already too strong to take over, so the start is relatively challenging.

The Parthians have the potential to be a great power – perhaps a great Empire – as they sit close to or astride the main trade routes from the east to the Mediterranean. The wealth of the world flows through these lands: a fortune that could pay for any army that an ambitious king could imagine. This wealth is there for the taking, for the people with the will to stretch out their hands and grasp it.

Parthian armies displays a relatively weak infantry (especially in early period), which can be assimilated mainly to a dismounted one, with local Persian-style auxiliaries and tribesmen. Parthian heart and soul is its almighty cavalry, at that time unrivalled. These nomads indeed built a reputation resting on a special breed of tall and strong horses (Niseans) worthy of their weight in gold to carry the lords and chieftains westwards, but they are first and foremost a breed tailored to carry cataphracts. Heavily cladded horsemen which are a bit like ancestors of modern tanks. Rarely galloping but on the last meters of open ground, they can disrupt the most unbreakable formation, cleave their way into the largest known armies. They will inspire later the Sarmatians into devising their own, more mobile version, influence the seleucids and the late Romans. This tradition will ultimately pass on the medieval times as the knights.

On the other hands, the bulk of the cavalry are common nomadic horsemen, mounted on fast and nervous poneys. These are horse-archers, but also skirmishers at closer ranges. They use the famous composite bow and its unique "W" shape that gave it extreme power and range, rapid-fire, while staying compact and handy for a horseman. The same weapon will gave countless eastern tribes occasions to unleash their conquering appetites westwards, with a tradition going straight to the Tatars and Mongols. Usually, these combined cavalry armies would surround and skirmish a foot army, drawing it far into remote, dry wasteland, harass troops night and day, kill foraging or isolated soldiers, seizing its baggage train and provisions, cut all supplies, before the army was weakened enough to take on for a large scale battle. And after a rain of arrow, both lethal and devastating for the morale of foot soldiers, and the bulk of partly isolated, the Cataphracts came and just punch through to break it into more parts, up to small groups, easy meat for the other closing cavalrymen. "The desert had dried more blood you will ever see".


Mithradates I, the son of Prince Mithradates of Cius, took advantage of the situation in Asia minor to establish a new kingdom of Pontus. He reigned 281–266 BCE. So by the time you start, it's fresh, but risky. Mithradates was not one of the Diadochi, but a freebooter who saw his chance and took it. According to plutarch he was a companion of young Demetrius (future Poliorcetes), son of Antigonus Monophtalmos, which planned to have him killed. he escaped and rode to Pontus with six horsemen and made himself king, using the confusion. Since then, Pontus has managed to maintain its independence from both Greek and Persian influences, even though the royal family have Persian roots. The kingdom has a good position on the Black Sea coast and the potential to expand into much of Asia Minor. Nearby lie the great trade routes from the east, a significant source of revenue. It is also home to many warlike peoples, a fact that could be exploited by expansionist rulers.

From the player's point of view, Pontus is located in a somewhat crowded place. Eastwards, the Armenians block you way; To the south, two empire are you neighbours, the Seleucids and Ptolemies. Westwards, a young and equally ambitious Pergamon has recently rose into power, while the Greek leagues and Macedonians also have possesions and a fleet. To the north the black sea is full of opportunities, with quite profitable trade routes, the Bosporan Cimmerian kingdoms, but with the Scythians, barely tamed, casting a shadow on the whole area and the fierce Sarmatians and Massagetae behind.

A classic in RTW, Pontus has a well-mixed combined Hellenistic Army, but with strong eastern/Persian influence. Pontus was probably the inventor of the thureopheronte, a kind of thureophoroi/archer, quite unique, and combined to phalanxes many light and mobile tribesmen, archers and slingers, plus powerful cavalry, including the Cappodocian Cataphracts, and plenty of local auxiliaries, Bithynian peltasts and all sorts of Phrygian infantry and cavalry. The future Galatians are not settled there yet, so there is still room for expansion at the borders.


Another novelty of this mod, never seen on another Catw version and now fully playable. The Sabean Kingdom was of course made famous by the Bible, through the fabled relation between the wealthy queen of this southern Arabian empire (called Sheba) and David, King of Israel. At the origin the kingdom comprised only two cities, Sana'a and Ma'rib, and the capital was later placed in Sirwah. The ancient Semitic civilization of Saba in Southern Arabia remains controversial. It is generally accepted now that it was located in southern Arabia, areas comprising new the Yemen and Arabian peninsula and was described as "the oldest and most important of the South Arabian kingdoms". In 275 BCE (from around 900 to 1200 BCE), long civil wars between Yemenite dynasties claiming kingship made it fall, replaced by the Kingdom of Himyar, the latter rising to fame between 110 BCE and 525 CE.

The Sabean kingdom legendary wealth came from the control of trade between the Indian ocean and the red sea, therefore, access to the Mediterranean, notably trade of frankincense and myrrh, incenses which were burned at altars. The Sabaean language and similar languages used in those rival kingdoms were, like Arabic, Semitic languages. The gold the caravans carried home with them made these also very wealthy. Rival kingdoms rose up in the area to challenge Saba, but the trade continued profitably for South until well into the Christian era, and the Sabaean civilization was the most reputed (among four kingdoms), demonstrated by an achievement such as the ma'rib dam, and the most durable as it had the largest standing army. It was able to develop a vigorous expansionist policy and conquered Qataban. It even send troops to conquer the east african coast (now Yemen). Little is known in detail of this army, but by 24BC, the Roman governor of Egypt and his legions, Marcus Aelius Gallus, was soundly defeated. The Sabaean army and its commander's confidence was also praised by the Qur'an.

Qataban was an ancient Yemeni kingdom, which heartland was located in the Baihan valley. The capital of Qataban was named Timna and was located on the trade route which passed through the other kingdoms of Hadramaut, Sheba and Ma'in. Chief deity was Amm, or "Uncle" while the Qatabans called themselves the "children of Amm". It became the most prominent Yemeni kingdom around 500 BCE, when its ruler held the title of the South Arabian hegemon, the Mukarrib, "priest-kings" or "federators" of Southern Arabia. About (800-400 bc) local political authority resided with the mlk, king of his own ethnic tribe but appointed to lead a council of southern tribes. It was later conquered and inegrated in the Sabaean kingdom.


In a literal sense the Scythians were one of many ancient nomadic tribes dwelt in steppes on the vast plains between Danube on the west and Chinese borders on the east. In wide sense "the Scythians" was ancient name for all these nomadic tribes because they had very similar way of life and culture. In RTW there was some confusion about them, as their starting position made them akin the Sarmatians, and not the Scythians, for this time period. But in this mod, these are indeed the good old "Scythians" which are portrayed.

The Golden Age of the Scythians began in 7th century BC when they became dominating nation in the northern Black Sea region and conquered large territories in the Middle East. In the end of 6th century BC they defeated the massive invasion force of Persian king Darius I. The Scythians has been quite aggressive, frequently raiding their neighbours, hell's angels mode, once rampaging as far as the Egyptian empire. Among ancient nations, they had been considered the perfect horse archers, still fascinating today because of their rich and colorful, yet unique culture. Portrayed as bogeymen by the Greeks, many of them had been used as mercenaries over time.

In 3th century BC began the decline of Scythian hegemony. In the west they had troubles with Celts and Thracians, in the east they were oppressed by Sarmatians. Gradually the Scythians were forced out to the area of the lower Dniepr and the Crimea. A pair centuries later they disappeared from the historic scene. They are here depicted as settling in Tanais, with immediately at hand the rich Greek city-states of the Bosphoran kingdom. So not pure nomads, but not completely settled or sedentary, the late Scythians are somewhat influenced by Hellenism, with which they gradually developed better, more civilized relationships. This traduced in a somewhat better infantry, while retaining all the might of their excellent cavalry. Could you bear the task of preserving the Scythian heritage through these troubled times and resist the Sarmatians ?


The death of Alexander the Great brought dissolution to his empire and of these Diadochi, or successors, was strong enough to be a new Alexander. The empire fragmented, and Seleucia was one of the splinter kingdoms, held together by the descendants of Seleucus, one of Alexander’s able lieutenants. Seleucus I came close to seizing the throne of Macedonia too, but was murdered before he could achieve this ambition in 280 bc, just when you start.

The Seleucids hold the former Babylonian provinces of Alexander’s empire, an area of ancient cities and rich farmlands along the Tigris. (As an historical aside, the later Seleucid capital city of Ctesiphon is now under a suburb of Baghdad in Iraq; the earlier capital, Seleucia, was on the other river bank). This region also sits on the trade routes to the mysterious east, something that generates large revenues for the Seleucid kingdom. This, combined with the manpower and military expertise that are available, could make the Seleucids into masters of much of the known world. A Greek-Persian empire, combining the best of both systems as Seleucus tried to do, could be formidable indeed, and perhaps unstoppable.


Not a true novelty as it was portrayed already in catw 0.1 (the very first version, nearly ten years ago), Pergamon is now also featured in this mod, in place of ... the Roman senate.

This powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis was not that far away from the bronze age Troy, on the western tip of actual Turkey. Funded by Greek settlers about 600 BC, this was part of the many Greek city-states that composed the population in western "Asia minor". In 281 BC, so just one year before this campaign Attalus funded the kingdom of Pergamon, and his dynasty would rule the area until 133BC. Of Hellenistic descent, and affiliated with Macedonian nobles, Attalus quickly built a splendid city and a mighty combined-armed army yo go with it. The city has been recaptured by Lysimachus, King of Thrace in 301 BC, and his lieutenant Philetaerus took over after his death, funding the dynasty.

He was succeed by Eumenes I (263–241 BC) and Attalus I (241–197 BC), the latter supporting Rome. For their zaelous support in the Third Macedonian War against the Seleucids, they were later rewarded by territories. Until 188, the city expanded dramatically while the territory reached its maximal expansion, on most of western turkey. Pat of the renown came from a sensible management by the Attalids, caling for skilled artisans and remitting taxes. At some time the local acropolis was modelled after, and rivalled, the Athenian one. The city was mostly built on a mountain hilltop, and the sight was extraordinary.

The Pergamese Army is not detailed in precision, but once could assume it was a potent force, composed of Macedonian-type pikemen and noble cavalry recruited among local landlords and a rather classical hoplitic infantry recruited in Pergamum, beefed-up by eastern and greek locals (Pandotapoi levies, skirmishers and archers), possible with access to eastern mecenaries, phrygian infantry and archers, thracians, even elephants. That attested by the famous battle led against the Galatoi (Gauls) settled in central Turkey from 280 BCE, that were raiding and plundering nearby areas. This skillfull defense against resolute Gauls bound to plunger the only city that refused to pay tribute earned Attalus the title of "Soter" ("savior"). One of the most remarkable artefact commemorating the victory was the sculpture of the dying gaul.


All free people of the world. The term Eleutheroi in ancient greek means "strangers". Playable, this "superfaction" unleashes a deluge of mini-factions to play with, and therefore quite a challenging and colorful campaign against the AI, on the whole world. Lenghty turns and a shattered economy will be of some concerns. As such, this allows to play many city-states (like Massilia and Syracuse) with their own specific rosters and styles, all nomadic nations, the Garamantes and Kushites in Africa, Iberian kingdoms like the Ilergetes in Iberia, lots of Celtic, Balkanic and Germanic tribes, not to mention the Sarmatians and Royal Scythians far to the east...


The original people of the Iberian Peninsula, consisted of a number of separate tribes, but are given the generic name "Iberians". The most important culture of this period is that of the city of Tartessos. Beginning in the 9th century BC, Celtic tribes entered the Iberian peninsula through the Pyrenees and settled throughout the Peninsula, becoming the Celt-Iberians. The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians successively settled along the Mediterranean coast and founded trading colonies there over a period of several centuries.

Around 1,100 BC Phoenician merchants founded the trading colony of Gadir near Tartessos. In the 8th century BC the first Greek colonies, such as Emporion, were founded along the Mediterranean coast on the East, leaving the south coast to the Phoenicians. The Greeks are responsible for the name Iberia, after the river Iber. In the 6th century BC the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia while struggling with the Greeks for control of the Western Mediterranean. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova (Latin name of modern day Cartagena).

The Romans arrived in the Iberian peninsula during the Second Punic war in the 3nd century BC, and annexed it under Augustus after two centuries of war with the Celtic and Iberian tribes and the Phoenician, Greek, and Carthaginian colonies becoming the province of Hispania. Some of Spain's present languages, religion, and laws originate from this Roman period.

Your role as the Celtiberian Leader is one of great difficulty. You have the Pyrhenees range to shield you from possible new incursions of Gallic Tribes, but your own Celtic stock makes you hatred by nearby Iberian peoples, and the mighty Carthaginians are always a threat from the South. Only through cunning diplomacy, proficient trade and a good military can provide you the roots of expansion.


At the dawn of history the ancient Thracians — a group of tribes speaking Indo-European language, once extended as far west as the Adriatic Sea, but were pushed eastward (c.1300 BC) by the Illyrians. In the 5th century BC they lost their land west of the Struma River to Macedon. In the North, however, Thrace at that period still extended to the Danube. Unlike the Macedonians, the Thracians did not absorb Greek culture, and they steadfastly clung to their language and culture.

The Thracian Bronze Age was similar to that of Mycenaean Greece, and the Thracians developed high forms of music and poetry. However their savage form of warfare led the Greeks to consider them barbarians. As the Greeks expanded into Thrace, they exploited Thracian gold and silver mines, and then recruited Thracians for their own infantry. Thrace was reduced to vassalage by Persia from c.512 BC to 479 BC, and Persian customs were then introduced.

Thrace was united as a kingdom under the chieftain Sitalkes, who aided Athens during the Peloponnesian War, but after his death in 428 BC, the state again broke up. By 342 BC all Thrace was held by Philip II of Macedon, and after 323 BC most of the country was in the hands of Lysimachus. It fell apart once more after Lysimachus' death in 281 BC, and it was conquered by the Romans late in the 1st century BC.

Your role as the Thracian Leader will be challenging. Battered by the Greeks for centuries, you've just come into your own and must use your small territory and Black Sea access to build an empire.
Here is the detailed list of changes:
CATW 04.9 changelogs (Latest update 02/05/2017)
-mauryan names
-add indian elephant, chariot and external army
-add new ships DMB
-Modified and corrected descriptions
-Personnalize standards
-Change gallic objectives on macedon, thrace
-new mercs recruitable
-new banners
-fixed scythian archer vertex buffer
-changed 40+ UI pics
-mod sabaean coastal levy stats (spear pb)
-fixed descr strat crete
-fixed descr strat eblani hibernians
-enable custom_battle_availability for emergent factions
-change victory conditions epirots, mauryans, saba, gauls
-judaean zealot changed to slinger +UI ok
-add greek names to senate
-fixed coastal spearman skin
-captain portraits change for all factions
-test descr_strat senate garamantes ok
-pergamon now playable
-create new name Philetaerus (Pergamon founder)
-mod strats ok
-fixed white standards pb
-new strat greek officers and lesser officers
-modified descr_character scipii and senate
-fixed some text pbs
-modified pergamum holite EDU DMB
-add new eastern descr_strat
-Changed mauryan banner
-updated UI pic merc east infantry
-added three pirate navies
-changed text mentions from "rebel" to "independent"
-added pergamese navy
-add greek slingers for all greeks
-added phrygian peltast pergam
-added eastern peltast pergam
-added bithynian pelatst pergam
-add new files proper to alex
-custom battles ok
-mod descr_strat (night battles, bi options)

CATW 04.8 latest update 13/04/2017
-added new icons
-descr_strat: numidia now Mauryan empire
-updated indian elephant stats (oliphant)
-Changed some sabaean names
-maurya & saba playable
-mod strats diplomats, spies, assassins (global)
-mod strats saba (scipii)
-changed sabaean general
-replaced 2 gallic models: arjos and cingetos
-new mauryan strats
-new mauryan strat officers
-added mauryan names (numidia)
-corrected indian spearmen UI (merc)

CATW 04.7 update 02/04/2017
Boost all slave factions, corrected UI pics pbs
Gave massilia a port
deleted golberi, enoci curoas
deleted merc kuarothoroi, merc galatoi kuroas
Boosted Egyptian Army and fleet
Changed all seleucid rosters
Changed all seleucid general names
Modified seleucid army and boosted navy
swapped corinth from macedon to greek leagues
boosted rhodian marines
put specific hoplites athens, sparta, rhodes
boosted greek army
boosted gallic army and faction (added lugdinensis)
deleted gallic fleet
added new achaian army
changed greek family names to neutral (greek cities)
added a new triple gallic invasion force in the balkans
added new historical name: cerethurios
boosted armenian faction
Sabaean cities in place
boosted and corrected carthaginian faction & fleet
added syracusan hoplites to syracuse
added merc mamertines to messana
added massilian hoplites

7z version zip version

More on CATW 04

December 2017: The lightweight catw

Recently i was taken by a bit of nostalgia, for i wanted catw to work properly on steam. Catw 1.0 actually works with the disc version and catw 2.0 only partly on steam (does not work for me).

Also the old catw units were asked for, and RTW is now available on tablet/ipad, so in November i embarked on the project of having a "light" version of catw with these old units, based on vanilla RTW, BI and Alex models and catw skins, but with also a fully working campaign on steam.
So, after some tweaking up and the help of Redfox zeus checker, here it is, an intermediate version of catw, never released before !

This is basically Mundus Magnus map set up in 280 bc and you can start with any faction (but the former Senate and Scipii, waiting to be converted respectively as the Mauryans and Sabaeans to take advantage of the map), but of course you can play with the Epirots and Pyrrhus himself stationed in Magna Grecia (Southern Italy) with his mighty army and try to rewrite history.

You can play either with RTW/BI and Alex (read the instruction and use the shortcuts).

About CATW: 11 years of dedication to the ancient world (2007-2018)

Classical-Age : Total War is a mod based on Rome: Total War strategy turn-by-turn videogame created by Creative Assembly in 2004, and now integrated into the "total war era" pack distributed by SEGA.

huge image of catw rosters
Humongous (13 mo) image of all units in catw (catw 1.0 and the new catw 0.5 in development)

A bit of history

Only Arminius, initially only focused on the skinning process, took on the matter after a beta1 released in october 2007. This demo featured almost 28-30 units rosters per factions, more historically accurate, and three new factions replacing the roman families: The Illyrians, Pergamum and the Galatians. The mod was kept light, while having colorful custom battles with standard size skins and RTW BI and later Alex models from vanilla game, as none in the team was versed in 3d modelling.

But soon after, as the target was considered filled, the team gently dismissed, and Arminius (the author of the actual mods and webmaster) embarked into the task as making a true campaign game. CATW BETA2a was eventually released in September, 2008. It had new units from add-ons and mods like Prometheus's Res Gestae and Lusted's Terra Expugnandae, anims from Signifer One, and new ships, new buildings and a lot of specific region units, the mod featured new music, graphics. It was fully playable, including original and new historical battles, new battle maps, etc, and working campaigns, although still the original Roman families and same timeframe.

However it was entirely in French. An English translation was made two month after. The second version or Beta2b (final beta2) was previously designed to play on the Mundus Magnus map, which never worked properly. The work was reported on the final version, or Catw 1.0, later upgraded to 1.1. This version was eventually superseded by CATW 2.0 in 2014 (most initial work was already done in 2008-2010) which comprised a brand new array of novelties and some RTW community modders participations as a subforum was created.

CATW 1.1, the new generation

How could be summup this mod ?
In short, this was the will to have a fully working mod, campaigns included, on Mundus Magnus maps, with all possible modifications. This included:
  • 200+ Brand new proper 3d models: Although largely based on the former poly models, they had many extra hidden elements allowing multiple headgears, weapons, on the same skin, thanks to tips from DVK801 modeller/skinner from the acclaimed Roma Surrectum II
  • HD skins: That is twice the size of normal textures applied to the 3d models, 512 instead of 256 pixels. On vanilla only generals had these large skins.
  • Ultra realistic standards. Instead of the vanilla "drawing-paintings" look, ALL textures are coming from the real world, leather, fabrics, metal, armoured scheme, cuirasses and helmets, authentic decorations, real life faces...
  • Giant rosters: Up to 40 units including those of AORs almost for each faction. To bypass EDU's limitation to 500 entries, many units have two names. Both EDU and DMB has been optimise to the last bit for the largest rosters ever in a RTW mod.
  • New environment: RS II developed a brand new vegetation, terrain textures, and all environment features were changed. It was proposed generously as a standalone mod and is integrated in catw.
  • New buildings:
  • AOR (Area of Recruitment) is emphasised with new building enabling to recruit local auxiliaries and mercenaries.
  • More authority:
  • EDB was thoroughly modified. Many buildings related to security, authority (like military barracks) now strengthens public order.
  • Challenging start:
  • Factions starts with quite a generous and colorful army, but independent factions are all but hostile and have huge rosters in 300 BC. It's though even for the Romans which start with a relatively weak Camillian army, surrounded by Samnites and Gauls.

Important Note:

Although CATW 1.1 and 2.0 are officially the latest versions of CATW they seems to work only properly on the disc version of RTW. All my personal tests with STEAM to have a working campaign failed so far, and it seems the case for many other players. Both mod versions are to be completely overhauled, corrected, and released as catw 1.2 and catw 2.1 respectively in the near future. They had never been tested with the no-cd version.

CATW 2.0, the 2014 release

This mod was ported further by Z3N (as well as the imdb page) with new Medieval II animations, new scripts and diplomacy AI, and new campaign with an upgraded map by Anarchon, encompassing much of India this time.
List of changes:

- Standalone patch. All others included in this one.
- Animations overhaul. Hundreds of new animations specifically designed for CATW. Adding to the immersive feel of battles.
- DMB fixes of all texture errors, all texture code adjusted accordingly.
- Expect a stable campaign now without crashes during battles. Report back if there are and which units were in the army.
- Everything in the DMB is fine. Only a file with improper dds encoding would cause a crash when loading a battle from now on with this patch.
- Several errors fixed in EDB and EDU.
- New formations from sinhuet modified for CATW are in it.
- Includes an alexander.exe patch as promised by coco, it will be playable on alexander now, in fact its highly recommended.
- A force diplomacy script are included in this patch.
- A specific adjustment to formations_ai to calibrate it for alexander.exe to prevent CTD's upon ambush.
- Bugfix for CTD upon winning campaign conditions for romans.
- New descr_strat*
- Roman and barbarian portraits by Joar. Carthaginian and Greek by myself
- New 4TPY script with historical facts per season until 268BC (WIP to be completed in upcoming patches)
- New sun
- New animation updates
- Character traits overhaul. (WIP to be added to in upcoming patches- Brand new map stretching from Britain to India with everything in between (Anarchon's but I only implemented one of his earliest versions)
- Bugfixes
- Germanicu5 scripts
- Redfox wooden walls
*Note: It works apparently on the disc version, however not always on steam, that why catw05 is on the way. See it on TWC

CATW 03: The First one

Have a go on the very first classical age total war released, back in 2009, now tested, overhauled and fully operational on STEAM, both campaign and custom battles. Best played on Alex.exe with or without unified rome.
To come: CATW 0.3.5, with a brand new Mundus Magnus Map (Elite 1.2), new Darth Vader IA, RS2 environment, new factions, strat cities, new factions balance, and many other stuff. Keep in touch !

See the dedicated page

Video Courtesy of naxzul666